|# 11 Apr, 2016 16:58|
Notes on upgrading and patching an Ubuntu server
|# 11 Apr, 2016 17:10|
apt-get upgrade - upgrade existing packages apt-get dist-upgrade - upgrade existing packages and add/remove dependencies apt-get install x - install "x" where x is a program like "htop" apt-get purge x - like install but full removal
Packages held back. Why?
How to get rid of the "5 packages held back" message after an upgrade. Use apt-get dist-upgrade. More detail below.
The difference between apt-get upgrade and apt-get dist-upgrade
apt-get upgrade is restricted to the case where packages are to be replaced by newer versions, but no package needs to be added or removed. A new version of Firefox, for instance, should be installable with apt-get upgrade.
However apt-get upgrade will refuse to work when there are additions or removals required by the updated versions. For example, when you have kernel linux-image-3.2.0-10-generic installed and linux-image-3.2.0-11-generic appears, the linux-image-generic package gets updated to depend on the newer version. In order to install the new kernel, you need to run apt-get dist-upgrade.
Notice how an apt-get upgrade will say that the kernel packages have been held back. That's the cue for using apt-get dist-upgrade.